One response to complexity and uncertainty is to demand more expertise.
Sometimes studying a problem for 20 years is good preparation: for a delicate surgery, an expert, experienced surgeon with the right specialty is the way to go.
But other complex problems aren’t like that. In highly uncertain arenas — like the markets, or politics — yesterday’s expertise isn’t necessarily the best guide to solving today’s challenge.
It’s important to be up to date. But if you’re trying to turn pro as a problem-solver in an uncertain world, it’s worth learning fundamental principles rather than building expertise of the moment.